MY FINAL PROJECT

TEACHING SPEAKING BY USING RIDICULE STRATEGY

AT JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

ABSTRACT

Salah satu keahlian yang harus diajarkan dalam mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris adalah speaking (berbicara). Pengajaran speaking diharapkan dapat menjadikan siswa-siswa mampu mengekspresikan ide-ide mereka secara lisan supaya mampu untuk berkomunikasi dengan baik. Ridicule strategy merupakan salah satu strategi pengajaran speaking yang digunakan dalam proses belajar mengajar.

Strategi pengajaran ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan media yang ridicule (lucu) dan meminta siswa untuk melakukan diskusi dikelas yang akan membahas tentang sebuah topik terkini serta bagaimana mereka memberikan opini tentang topik tersebut. Dalam diskusi ini, seluruh kelompok akan berbicara menyampaikan informasi yang mereka dapat yang nanti nya akan di sampaikan kepada kelompok lain. Adanya kesempatan untuk merevisi informasi yang telah disampaikan juga merupakan bagian dari strategi sehingga mahasiswa tidak pasif dalam berbicara  karena takut salah menyampaikan informasi. Dalam hal ini, partisipasi dari semua kelompok sangat diperlukan dengan memberikan opini mereka sebagai pendukung informasi yang mereka dapat dan guru mengontrol setiap kegiatan yang dilakukan siswa selama diskusi berlangsung. Disamping itu, guru juga dapat membantu jika siswa-siswa tersebut mendapat kesulitan sehingga diskusi berjalan lancar. Dari proses pengaplikasian strategi tersebut diharapkan dapat meningkatkan kemampuan bicara siswa dan juga menjadikan siswa lebih kreatif dan aktif dalam bahasa Inggris.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Praise to Allah SWT, that finally this paper been completed by now the writing of this paper involves the work and helps many people to whom the writer is grateful.

Then, the writer would like to express her sincere gratitude to all the lecturer of English Department, especially to Nanik Sulastri, S.Pd as the writer’s advisor who has guided the writer in this paper. Without her guidance, suggestion, and advice, the writer would have never been able to complete this project.

The writer deepest thank is also extended to the head and the secretary of English Department of Teaching Training and Education (STKIP) PGRI West Sumatera, Dra. Yelfiza, M.Pd and Afridelfi, S.Pd who facilitate during study.

Next, all of this gratitude must also go to member of my family. My father and my mother who have been of encouraged for me in finishing this paper, sisters and brothers and also of my friends. Finally, the writer hopes this paper will be useful for the other readers.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

ABSTRACT————————————————– i

ACKNOWLEDGMENT————————————————–   ii

TABLE OF CONTENT————————————————–   iii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Problem————————————-   1

B. Limitation of the Problem—————————————   3

C. Formulation of the Problem————————————–   3

D. Significance of the Paper—————————————-   3

CHAPTHER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Concept of Speaking——————————————–   5

1. Nature of Speaking——————————————–   5

2. Teaching Speaking——————————————–   6

3. Components of Speaking————————————–   10

4. Purposes of Speaking——————————————   13

B. Ridicule Strategy————————————————   14

1. Definition of Ridicule Strategy——————————-   14

2. Teaching Procedures of Ridicule Strategy——————–   16

3. Advantage of Ridicule Strategy——————————   19

CHAPTER III DISCUSSION

A. Preparation——————————————————-   21

B. Application of Ridicule Strategy——————————–   22

1. Pre Teaching Activities—————————————-   22

2. Whilst Teaching Activities————————————   25

3. Post Teaching Activities—————————————   29

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion——————————————————-   35

B. Suggestion——————————————————-   36

REFERENCE

 

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.    Background of the Problem

In Indonesia, English is as a foreign language. It is one compulsory subject that must be learned at school, starting from Elementary school to University level.  “Based on the Government Regulation No. 19, 2005 in education, English language has been taught by all of levels starting from Elementary school until University level”. The curriculum in our educational institution is School-Based Curriculum (SBC). In this curriculum, especially English language, there are four skills that should be taught to the students. They are speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Based on the curriculum at Junior High School, student’s English communication skill is helped by speaking skill to encounter the science and technology development and compete in era globalization.

Then, in teaching speaking, the teacher can use media and speaking active. The teacher should think appropriate media that make students enjoyable and happiness. For example, the teacher can use videos about conversation or song. Through speaking active, the teacher can use class discussion. This way will make interaction or practice between the speaker and listener and this speaking activity is fluent if they understand each other.

However, the process of teaching speaking in the classroom is not an easy job. When teaching English for several months in MTs N Lubuksikaping, the writer found that some students had difficulty to speak English well. This case could be seen when the teacher spoke English to the students and then they only keep silent and could not give response to the teacher. There were some factors that might influence students’ speaking ability become low such as lack vocabulary, lack background knowledge about the topic, lack of linguistic competence and scare when doing a mistake. Thus, the students did not have interest in studying English especially speaking. It could be seen that the students felt shy when the teacher ask them to speak English. Sometimes, they made noise during teaching and learning process.

After that, the next factor was from the teachers’ strategy in teaching and learning process. Teacher taught of speaking to the students by using monotonous strategy like pair dialogues. Teaching learning process in the school was less varies, because teaching learning process was only dominated by the teacher. In the beginning of the study, the teacher explains the lesson, and then gave the students pair dialogue and assignment or exercise. In the end of the learning, teacher gave homework to the students, and this case takes place continually. But,

Last, the teacher should help students to overcome these problems. The teacher should think of some strategies in teaching speaking to help students and make teaching learning process become enjoyable, interesting, and guide students to improve their speaking. There are some strategies that can use by the teacher in teaching speaking. The strategies are criticizing, bandwagoning, echoing, giving exceptions, examining in detail, ridicule, and getting to the basics (Rivers, 2000: 205). From those strategies the writer is choose to use ridicule strategy in teaching speaking because this strategy may develop of students’ speaking skill.

B.     Limitation of the Problem

As state above, there are many strategies in teaching speaking to help the students to develop their speaking skill and students can get the opportunity to give their opinion based on the situation given. But, the writer only focuses on teaching speaking by using ridicule strategy at seventh grade of Junior High School.

C.      Formulation of the Problem

Based on the background and limitation of the problem, the writer formulates this paper into “How to teach speaking by using ridicule strategy at the seventh grade of Junior High School?”

D.      Significance of the Paper

The significance of this paper is for student, teacher, reader, and writer. Firstly, it can improve students’ motivation in learning process; the student can make social interaction; and it is used by the student to enhance the quality of his or her learning. Secondly, the writer hopes  that this paper will help the teacher makes a pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere; makes a cohesive learner group; and it will make a good teacher behavior. Thirdly, it can add knowledge to reader about a good strategy in teaching speaking, reader will know the goal of teaching by using ridicule strategy, and reader can cheat and apply this strategy.  Finally, the writer hopes also this paper will give advantage to writer itself like to work seriously by using ridicule strategy; it will make a class presentation on a ridicule; and makes a ridicule with a creative speaking assignment.

 

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A.     Concept of Speaking

1.      Nature of Speaking

Speaking as a means of communication is the process transmitting as message person to other person. Related the words in speaking practice, the students at any level are able to ask and to answer the question in English. In other word, speaking is used to send information, news, ideas, and opinion.

According to Jones in Richard (1996: 12) “In speaking we tend to be getting something done, exploring ideas, working out some aspect of the world, or simply being together. It means that speaking is getting something done, expressing ideas, opinions, or feelings to others by using words or sounds of articulation in order to inform, to persuade, and to entertain that can be learn through teaching and learning process. However, Nunan (2003: 48) speaking is the productive aural/oral skill. It consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning. In other word, speaking is explained by speaker the meaning of a word or sentence with orally.

Furthermore, Luoma (2004: 9) states that speaking as interaction, and speaking as a social and situation-based activity. All these perspectives see speaking as an integral part of people’s daily lives. In order word, speaking as social interaction which happens in ours believes. Meanwhile, Chaney in Kayi (2006: 1) states that speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts. Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching. It means that, speaking is the most important to make of a meaning in learning-teaching process by using verbal and non verbal symbols.

In addition, Wehmeier (2007: 1467) says that speaking is defined as to talk or conversation to somebody about something. In other word, speaking is discussed by someone to other people about a subject. Last, Ali (2011: 1) says that speaking is a productive skill which requires a lot of back-up factors like knowledge, confidence, self esteem, and enthusiasm. Speaking a second language, particularly, brings about its own prerequisites: exposure, consolidation, motivation as well as acknowledgement. In order word, speaking is developing a productive skill which influences some of factors like knowledge, confidence, self esteem, and enthusiasm.

Based on that definition, it can be concluded that speaking is the conversation activity of someone to other to be getting something done, exploring ideas, working out some aspect of the world, or simply being together. Furthermore, speaking as interaction, social and situation-based activity, and the process of building and sharing meaning with aural/oral skill through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts which requires a lot of back-up factors like knowledge, confidence, self esteem, and enthusiasm.

  1. 2.      Teaching Speaking

Teaching speaking is important in language learning. Teacher need to encourage students’ participation by making experience interesting and motivating. And also the teacher should support the students to practice English as a habit in order to make their English speaking ability can use to interact with other in daily life.

According to Tanner and Green (1998: 1) one way to teach of this speaking is distinguishing your classroom from other classrooms in your school by arranging the classroom desks differently, in groups instead of lines or by decorating the walls in English language and culture posters. From day one teach your students classroom language and keep on teaching it and encourage your students to ask for things and to ask questions in English. Giving positive feedback also helps to encourage and relax shy students to speak more. Another way to get students motivated to speak more is to allocate a percentage of their final grade to speaking skills and let the students know they are being assessed continually on their speaking practice in class throughout the term. It means that teacher was taught of speaking skill by arranging the classroom desks, decorating the walls in English language, ask questions in English. The students’ motivation can make trough giving positive feedback and allocates a percentage of student’s final grade to speaking skill.

However, Nunan (2003: 49) states that for many years’ people taught speaking by having students repeat sentences and recite memorized dialogues. Audio-lingual repetition drills were designed to familiarize students with the sounds and structural pattern of the target language. People supposedly learned to speak by practicing grammatical structures and then later using them in conversation. So, an audio-lingual speaking lesson might involve an interaction. In order word, speaking is taught by teacher through audio-lingual repetition. In this case, the students were learned to speak by using conversation.

Furthermore, Zakharova (2004: 1) states that the students are commonly taught to speak by having games or activities based on an information gap. The classic information gap exercise has students work in pairs. Each student is given a picture that is slightly different. Through descriptions and without showing the picture to each other the students are expected to communicate to solve the problem of identifying a certain number of differences. Other information gap activities may be to have students read different stories on related issues and have them tell what they remember to their partners. At lower levels students may simply repeat after the teacher or the tape. At higher levels the students may engage in debates on controversial subjects. In other word, the teacher was taught of speaking by giving games or activities based on an information gap and a picture that is slightly different.

Meanwhile, Kayi (2006: 1) suggests that the teachers teach the students to speak in Second Language by interacting. It can be done when the students collaborate in group to achieve a goal or to complex a task. By using this classroom, the students will have opportunity to communicate with other in target language. It means that when the teaching speaking the teacher was used classroom discussion so the students can be done in their group.

In addition, Harmer (2007: 57) there are three main reasons for makes students to speak in the classroom. Firstly, speaking activities provide rehearsal opportunities chances to practice real-life speaking in the safety of the classroom. It means that the teacher provides rehearsal for students to speak in the classroom. Secondly, speaking tasks in which students try to use any or all of the languages they know provide feedback for both teacher and students. In other word, the speaking task is given by teacher to students in use of their language. Finally, the more students have opportunities to activate the various elements of language. They have stored in their brains, the more automatic their use of these elements become. As a result, students gradually become autonomous language users. In order word, the teacher had given the rehearsal and speaking task to students so the language is used by students because they have opportunity to remember the various elements of language.

Based on the explanation above, the writer can conclude that teaching speaking makes the students to speak by interacting in the classroom. In order to speak or interact in English, the students should repeat sentences and recite memorized dialogues. The other way makes students’ interaction by giving games or activities based on information gap and picture that is slightly different. Last, students’ motivation in teaching speaking is made by teacher with arranging the classroom desks, decorating the walls in English language, ask questions in English, giving positive feedback to students and allocates a percentage of student’s final grade to speaking skill.

Then, in teaching speaking the teacher can use of transactional text. This text is used by the teacher because it can involve the students’ interaction with other. There are several topics of transactional text such as introduction, command, prohibition, thanking, apologize, and politeness. However, the teacher chooses a topic about command. In teaching this topic the teacher gives some expressions of command to students. The expressions of that command like brush your teeth, open your mouth, come here, raise your hand, etc. So, in teaching of this text, the teacher introduces the expressions used in the text.

  1. 3.                Components of Speaking

Actually, speaking has several components. According to Brown (1994: 1) there are three components of speaking skill. They are as follows:

a)      Preparation: show the learners a picture of two people conversing in a familiar casual setting. It means that the teacher asks the learners to brainstorm what the people might be discussing. For example, the learners discuss about the topic and vocabulary.

b)      Presentation: present several video clips of small talk in casual situations. After learners complete a worksheet in which they describe or list the topics discussed, the students discuss about the topic and typical phrase in small talk.

c)      Practice: give learners specific information about the participants and the setting of a scenario where small talk will take often used speaking activities in language classroom; a teacher can select activities from a variety of tasks.

It means that, the components of speaking like preparation that gives brainstorm to the people related topic discussion. Then, present some of videos as complete a worksheet. After that, teacher asks the learners to practice in classroom in small talk.

Meanwhile, Syakur in Mora (2010: 2) state that there are five components of speaking skill. They are as follows:

  1. Pronunciation

Pronunciation is the way for students’ to produce clearer language when they speak. It deals with the phonological process that refers to the component of a grammar made up of the elements and principles that determine how sounds vary and pattern in a language. There are two features of pronunciation; phonemes and supra segmental features. A speaker who constantly mispronounces a range of phonemes can be extremely difficult for a speaker from another language community to understand. In other word, pronunciation is a way for someone in appropriate utterance and how sounds vary and pattern in a language.

  1. Grammar

It is needed for students to arrange a correct sentence in conversation. The students’ ability to manipulate structure and to distinguish appropriate grammatical form in appropriate ones. The utility of grammar is also to learn the correct way to gain expertise in a language in oral and written form. It means that, grammar is the structure of a correct sentence in oral and written form.

c.         Vocabulary

One cannot communicative effectively or express their ideas both oral and written form if they do not have sufficient vocabulary. Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. In other word, vocabulary means the appropriate diction which is used in communication.

  1. Fluency

Fluency can be defined as the ability to speak fluently and accurately. Fluency in speaking is the aim of many language learners. Signs of fluency include a reasonably fast speed of speaking and only a small number of pauses and “ums” or “ers”. These signs indicate that the speaker does not have spend a lot of time searching for the language items needed to express the message. So, it is a speakers’ skill in the speed of speaking and he does not spend a lot of time to convey his idea.

  1. Comprehension

It is a subject to respond to speech as well as to initiate it. When someone speaks with other he/she has to comprehend the messages that are produced by his/her interlocutor, but they have to know that the interlocutor to tell him/her. In order word, take of a point about message and it used to response of interlocutor.

In other words, first, pronunciation is the way for students’ to produce clearer language when they speak. Second, grammar is arranging a correct sentence in conversation, and it is also to learn the correct way to gain expertise in a language in oral and written form. Then, vocabulary is the words that used to their ideas both oral and written form. After that, fluency is the ability to speak fluently and accurately. Finally, comprehension is a subject to respond to speech as well as to initiate it.

Based on the theories above, the writer concludes there are some of components of speaking. Those components were used to make students comprehend in speaking in the classroom. In achievement of comprehend, the teacher should make students’ assessment in small talk.

  1. 4.      Purposes of Speaking

Actually, there are many purposes of speaking, as follows:

  1. To express something

Sasson (2010: 1) says that speak to express and share feelings, ideas, and opinions. Speak to describe (e.g., a person or place) and to narrate (e.g., an incident from own experience). Speak to explain, report, and inform (e.g., give multi-step directions and instructions in accurate sequence; give reports and presentations). It means that, a speaker is conveying the meaning of his idea, opinion, or feeling.

  1. To meet interpersonal purposes

Nunan (1993: 1) declare that when a speaker speaks in any conversation, he or she will try to concern with socialization. One wants to meet some interpersonal purposes through the conversation. He or she wants to establish and maintain social relationship with others. Hence, it is obviously the case that a great deal of everyday human interaction is characterized by interpersonal communication. This is in line with the fact that speaking is the most importance form of communication. It makes a social-interaction between speaker and interlocutor.

  1. To meet transactional purpose

If speaker pays more attention to the efficient transfer information in conversations, it indicates that they want to meet some transactional purpose. Nunan (1993: 1) states that language used in such a situation are a primary message oriented. The importance thing is the reception of correct information details in the conversation. It means that, a language is used by the speaker to transfer of information to interlocutor.

In conclusion, in speaking someone has several skills in order to make the listener understand what the speaker’s say. In this case, the speaker should know the purposes of speaking like to express something. It is speak to express and share feelings, ideas, and opinions. Then, purpose of speaking like to meet interpersonal purposes. It means that, a speakers’ will try to concern with socialization when he/she speaks in any conversation. The last purpose like to meet transactional purpose. It means a speaker pays more attention to the efficient transfer information in conversation because the language used in such a situation is a primary message oriented.

B. Ridicule Strategy

     1. Definition of Ridicule Strategy

There are some experts says that the definition of ridicule. According to Gantar (2005: 71) ridicule was a common rhetorical strategy; it did not play a prominent role in critical discussions until its morality was questioned. Etymologically, the word ridicule derives from the Latin verb ridere (to laugh) and is usually defined as the deliberate exposure of an issue or a person to laughter. In other words, to ridicule is to make something diverse or be worthy of laughter.

Then, Hobbes (2007: 3) states that ridicule was a communication strategy use of a laughter or humor in the conversation, drama and buffoonery script. It makes someone enjoyable and happiness. It means that ridicule was a strategy in communicate of someone to other by using humor so he or she enjoyable.

Furthermore, Billig (2011: 75) states that ridicule was a weapon to be used against the sort of dangerous religious enthusiasm that threatened liberty. Unreasonable enthusiasm is preserved by ‘solemn sadness’ and threatened by ridicule. Then, ridicule involves the sort of unpleasant feelings that Hobbes had described and that seemed so inimical to good-hearted, tasteful conversation and functions of ridicule for promoting social congruity. It means that ridicule was a weapon used by someone so inimical to good-hearted of unpleasant feelings.

Moreover, Brown in Billig (2011: 81) states that ridicule was a device of rhetoric. Like other rhetorical devices, it could be used to befriend either truth or falsehood. He was arguing against the idea that ridicule as practiced in gentlemanly conversation, was the way to discover truth. In order word, ridicule is rhetoric in discussion either truth falsehood. In addition, Rowman (2004: 31) states that ridicule is the hot poker of humor. It can be fun, it can be received, and it can make its creator look very clever. On the flip side, it can be misunderstood, with the consequence of making its author appear mean-spirited, or as another scenario, the instigator might be “upped” and made to look like a fool. It means that ridicule was a humor and it can be fun or misunderstood.

From the experts thought about the definition of ridicule strategy, the writer concludes that ridicule was a common rhetorical strategy; this strategy has structure in its application, and a person was exposure issue with use laughter. The other definition of ridicule was a tool to be used against the sort of dangerous religious enthusiasm that threatened liberty. Next, ridicule was a device of structure that used to befriend either truth or falsehood, and practice in drama or conversation.  Last definition of ridicule was the hot poker of humor that can be fun, received, and make its creator look very clever.

      2. Teaching Procedures of Ridicule Strategy

There are some of the teaching procedures of ridicule strategy to identify the variety of learning styles in the classroom, and some of measures can be taken to facilitate and encourage all types of learners. Consideration of the variety of learning styles highlights the need for order, structure, creativity, group work, and practical exercises. According to Klippel (1989: 3) there are six steps to teach of ridicule strategy, as follows:

a)      Make sure that your students understand the context of the chant. This may entail explaining necessary vocabulary items and cultural items.

b)      Give each line of the chant once or twice as needed. Ask your students to repeat in unison.

c)      Establish a rhythm by clapping. Repeat step 2 with a firm beat.

d)     Divide the class into the large groups. Using the beat you have established give the lines. The two groups of students alternately repeat the lines as they are given.

e)      Take the first part in the chant dialogue; ask the whole class to take the second part.

f)       Divide your class into two groups again and give the first part of the chant to group A and the second part to group B.

Moreover, Rivers (2000: 1) states that there are five steps to teach of ridicule strategy, as follows:

a)      Give the students a two-page reading related to a controversial issue. In this way, students will have a common background for discussion. Questions such as “What is culture?” provide a starting point for discussion at the beginning of a course.

b)      Divide the class into group of three or four.

c)      Rules: No one may speak a second time until everyone in the group has spoken once. There must be a pause of seven seconds between speakers. All speakers must refer in some way to what a previous speaker has said.

d)     Assign the role of facilitator to one student in each group. The facilitator ensures that the rules are not broken. (Rotate the facilitator every five minutes).

e)      After fifteen minutes, the class comes together. Someone from each group summarizes the group’s opinions.

In addition, Rhonda (2006: 1) says that there are eight steps to teach of ridicule strategy, as follows:

a)    Preparation: as adult students come from varied educational backgrounds, it is necessary to state clearly if there are any prerequisites for taking a course.

b)   Organization of content: learning is easier when content and procedures or skills to be learned are organized into meaningful sequences.

c)    Emotion: learning that involves the emotions and personal feelings, as well as the intellect, is influential and lasting.

d)   Participation: in order for learning to take place, a person must internalize the information.

e)    Feedback: learning is increased when individuals are periodically informed of progress in their learning.

f)    Reinforcement: learning motivated by success is rewarding, it builds confidence, and it will affect subsequent behavior in positive ways.

g)   Association: learners will learn and remember information better if they have many associations with it.

h)   Practice: provision should be made for frequent practice and repetition, often in different contexts, for long-term retention to be encouraged.

i)     Application: complete understanding has taken place only when the learner is able to apply or transfer the learning to new problems or situations.

Having compared to the experts above, the writer uses that the procedure of ridicule strategy by Klippel (1989: 3). The writer uses procedure because this procedure is easy to apply and understood by students at the seventh grade of Junior High School. It will increase the students’ ability in speaking without being afraid of getting mistake in giving opinion because this strategy will make the students have confidence to speak. The teacher will not find difficulties to ask students to speak because they have been basic in speak and it is interesting for them.

3. Advantage of Ridicule Strategy

In this paper, there are three experts that give opinion about advantage of ridicule strategy. According to James (1997: 59) there are several advantages of ridicule strategy, as follows:

  1. Ridicule expressed a new intellectual freedom and was a weapon for attacking guardians of the old order.
  2. Ridicule introduced a range of new discursive possibilities in religious debate
  3. Ridicule magnifies minor problems such as ambiguities within accounts or significant inconsistencies among various miracle narratives.

In order words, advantages of ridicule strategy such as to express a new intellectual freedom, to introduce a range of new discursive possibilities, and magnifies minor problems.

Furthermore, Mauger (2001: 1) states that there are several of advantages of ridicule strategy, as follows:

a)      act as a communication tool as well as provide an emotional bonding and a demonstration of supportiveness and acceptance

b)      enhance the therapeutic alliance by confirming parity between client and counselor

c)      help to reinterpret a distressing event and to distance the individual from the stressor thus providing a more realistic perspective on the problem

d)     serve to reinforce belief in new adaptive ways of thinking

e)      improve the physiological state

In other words, advantages of ridicule strategy like act as a communication tool, enhance the therapeutic alliance, reinterpret a distressing event and distance the individual, reinforce belief in new adaptive, and improve the physiological state.

In addition, Chlorine (2006: 1) states that there are three advantages of ridicule strategy, as follows:

a)      It must allow someone has sprit and personally responsible and for a meaningful portion of the work accomplished.

b)      A constructive believable critique of the work performed is crucial to a worker’s motivation to improve.

c)      It help shy someone become more confident to speak up

In order words, advantages of ridicule strategy such as make responsible, motivation, and help someone to work accomplished and speak up.

Based on the opinions above, the writer concludes that advantage of ridicule strategy is a communication tool or a weapon to reinforce belief and to communicate the problems and miracle narratives though confirm between teacher and student so that it can improve students’ physiology state.

 

 CHAPTER III

DISCUSSION

 In this chapter, the writer would like to discuss about preparation and application of ridicule strategy in teaching speaking at the seventh grade of Junior High School.

A.      Preparation

Preparation is very important for the teacher in teaching speaking process; as one preparing teaching material before teaching. It is very important to complete the topic, which will give to students. Making lesson plan should be done in order the teacher can reach the objective efficiently and effectively.

During the process of teaching speaking in the classroom, the language teacher may play some important roles. The roles are meaningful and helpful to language students. Some of linguistic outline the roles of language teacher in the speaking class. Among them, there are two suggestion of how language teacher should be in the speaking class.

In this step, the teacher should consider some factors before she or he comes to real the teaching. There is something she or he has to do for her or his teaching, as follows:

  1. Choosing familiar topic

The teacher should choose the familiar topic for the students at seventh grade of Junior High School so that students can reflect or what they know about it. Based on the curriculum, the topic of this grade is asking command.

  1. Time allocation

The teacher should concern the time for predicting activities like 15 minutes as pre-teaching, 50 minutes as whilst-teaching, and 25 minutes as post-teaching. So the time is enough for the students to do their task.

  1. Teaching goal

Teaching has to stage goal before come to the class. It is done in order to make teacher can recognize how far students can comprehend and understand the material.

B.       Application of Ridicule Strategy

There are some of activities in teaching procedure. They are pre-teaching, whilst-teaching, and post-teaching activities.

  1. Pre-teaching activities (15 minutes)

Pre-teaching activity is the activity which is done of the beginning of the class. It is done in order to give students background knowledge and to build their self confidence. This activity will be give some new information, stimulate curiously, and also increase student’s concentration. Then, pre-teaching activity can make the students understand or gain quickly what they are going to study.

There are several steps of pre-teaching activities. They are as the following:

a)      Teacher greets the students

Teacher: Good morning, students!

Students: Good morning, teacher!

Teacher: How are you today?

Students: I am fine, and you?

Teacher: I am very well. Thanks!

b)      Check students attendance

Teacher: Ok students, I will check your attendance list. If I said your name, please raise your hand!

Students: Ok, Mr.

c)      Determine students goal in speaking

After learning the command, I hope you can construct about it in daily life.

d)     The teacher reviews the expression will related with this discussion

Teacher: What did you learn last week?

Students: We were learn about asking and giving opinion

Teacher: Ok, what are the expressions of asking and giving opinion?

Students: Expressing Asking Opinion         Expressing Giving Opinion

What do you think of                    –  If you ask me,

₋   How do you fell about                 –  As far as I’m concerned

₋   What is your opinion                    –  I think

Teacher: Then, what are the responds of asking and giving opinion?

Students: Expressing Agreement                Expressing Disagreement

–    I agree,…….                                – I don’t agree with that

–    I think so too, …                           – I don’t think so

–    That’s how I feel                          – I don’t know about that

e)      Brainstorming

In this section, the teacher gives video song related to the topic

 If You are Happy and You Know It

If you’re happy and you know it, clap your hands!

If you’re happy and you know it, clap your hands!

If you’re happy and you know it,

Then your face will surely show it.

If you’re happy and you know it, clap your hands!
If you’re happy and you know it, stamp your feet!
If you’re happy and you know it, stamp your feet!
If you’re happy and you know it,
Then your face will surely show it.

If you’re happy and you know it, stamp your feet!

If you’re happy and you know it, shout Hooray!

If you’re happy and you know it, shout Hooray!

If you’re happy and you know it,

Then your face will surely show it.

If you’re happy and you know it, shout Hooray!

If you’re happy and you know it, do all three!

If you’re happy and you know it, do all three!

If you’re happy and you know it,

Then your face will surely show it.

If you’re happy and you know it, do all three!

Taken from: http://torokossik.blogspot.com/2012/03/19-video-classroom  actions.html

Teacher: Ok students, what do you think about that video?

Students: It is funny Mr.

Teacher: Good, It is funny. Any others opinion?

Students: That video tells about command, Sir.

Teacher: Yes, very good. So, that video tells about asking command.

Do you understand?

Students: Yes, Mr.

  1. Whilst-teaching activities (50 minutes)

a)   Teacher says the command from video  and asks students to cheat while practice of command

Teacher: Ok class, I want to say the command from that video. After that, I would like you to cheat while practice of that command. You get it!

Students: Yes, Sir.

Teacher: Ok, Andy. Clap your hands!

Andy    : Clap your hand!

Teacher: Ok, very good. Next, Ricky. Stamp your feet!

Ricky   : Stamp your feet!

Teacher: Right. Now, John. Shout hooray!

John    : Shout hooray!

Teacher: Yes. Last, Lucy. Do all three!

Lucy      : Clap your hands! Stamp your feet! Shout hooray! 

            Teacher: Ok, thank you.

 b)   Teacher asks students sing a song together from that video

Teacher: Well, I want ask you sing a song from that video. You get it!

Students: Ok, Sir.

c)   Teacher asks students to repeat sing a song with a firm beat.

Teacher: After you sing together, I want to ask you to repeat sing but establish a rhythm by clapping. Do you understand?

Students: Ok, Mr.

d)  Teacher asks students to make a group.

Teacher: Now, please make a group and each group consist of 6 students so the class has 5 groups.

Students: Ok.

e)   Teacher asks students to practice in group, one student as asking command and another student as practice.

Teacher: After you make a group, please choose from your member group to practice, one student as asking command and one student as practice by using yourself words.

Students: Yes, Mr.

f)     Teacher shows another video to students about conversation of command

Teacher: Ok students, I would like to show you one more video. Lets’ see!

Students: Yes.

Classroom Action and Command

Charly: Hi kids, today we can do classroom command!

Let see! A pappy can listen. Hi, Pappy!

Pappy: Hi, Charly! What do you have?

Charly: Oh, lock. Listen to me, five, four, three, two, one

Pappy, now lets’ handsome fun

Ok, pappy. Stand up!

Ok, pappy. Come here

Pappy, open your mouth!

Pappy, listen to your CD!

Ok, pappy. Close your eyes!

Ok, pappy. Sit down!

Hi, pappy. Do you want to do a packing?

Pappy: Ok.

Charly: Come on! Now lets’ see! What is need?

Give me the CD!

Ok, now give me the pen!

Ok, now give me the juggling balls!

Ok, now give me the flowers!

Ready….!

Pappy: Ready,,,hmmmm…..

Wow,,, that looks good.

Charly: Hmmm…….

Taken from: http://torokossik.blogspot.com/2012/03/19-video-classroom  actions.html

g)                Teacher asks the students to say the command from that video

Teacher: Now, I want to ask you mention the command from that video. If you know that, raise your hand, please!

Sherly  : I am Mr.

Teacher: Ok, Sherly. Please, mention it!

Sherly  : Listen to me, stand up, come here, and open your mouth.

Teacher: Very good, any other?

Picky  : Yes, Sir. It is like lets’ see, give me the juggling balls, close your eyes, and sit down.

Teacher: Wonderful, What about you, John?

John  : Yes, Mr. Expressions of command from that video like come on, give me the CD, give me the pen, and give me the flowers.

Teacher: Ok, right.

h)   Teacher divides the class in two groups, first group as asking command and second group as practice.

Teacher: In this section I will divide this class in two groups, first group as asking command and second group as practice.

Students: Ok, Mr.

i)     Teacher asks those groups to practice in class.

Teacher: Last section I would like these groups to practice in class, first group as asking command and second  group as practice and otherwise.

Students: Ok, Sir.

 

  1. Post-teaching activities (25 minutes)

The last activity is post-teaching activity. The teacher does evaluation about the lesson. The teacher gives a new topic about command by using pictures related with that topic. This evaluation is used by teacher to assess the students.

Teacher: Well students, I want to show you some pictures. Then, you make a command based on the pictures and practice with your partner!

Students: Yes, sir.

Picture 1 (A teacher is giving the punishment to the student)

Taken from: http://images/2007-633-teaching-australian-history.jpg

Picture 2 (Ronald go to the Shopi’s Cafe)

Taken from: http://www.google.co.id/search?q=eat&um=1&hl=id

Picture 3 (Mercy sings a song in the party)

Taken from: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/320/singing-cartoon-couple.gif

Picture 4 (A speaker is presenting his material)

Taken from: http://tipsh2012/02/teaching-public-speaking

Picture 5 (Father asks Charlene to take the rubbish)

Taken from: http://letshavefunwithenglish/take_rubbish.jpg

Speaking Rubric/Teacher Outline

Aspect

Score

Description

 

4

Authentic

Pronunciation

3

Minor English sounds

 

2

Americanized

 

1

Incomprehensible

 

4

Minor errors

Accuracy

3

Comprehensible errors

 

2

Confusing errors

 

1

Incomprehensible errors

 

4

Circumlocution with ease

Vocabulary

3

Avoids English

 

2

Frequent lapses into English

 

1

Mostly English and/or incorrect word use

 

4

Fluid

Fluency

3

Minor hesitations

 

2

Broken speech and awkward silences

 

1

No flow

 

4

Spontaneous, two-way conversation

Comprehension

3

Controlled, two-way conversation

 

2

Inflexible, directed conversation (take turns)

 

1

The exchange isn’t much of a conversation

Maximal Score: 4×5  =20

Maximal Value          =20

Finally Value             =Percentage Score                                    

   Maximal Score

 Example:                         Michael’s Speaking Score Sheet

Aspect

0

1

2

3

4

Pronunciation

3

Accuracy

3

Vocabulary

4

Fluency

3

Comprehension

4

 

Maximal Score: 4×5  =20

Maximal Value          =20

Finally Value             = Percentage Score      

Maximal Score

Michaels’: Pronunciation        = 3

Accuracy               = 3

Vocabulary            = 4

Fluency                 = 3

Comprehension        = 4

17

= 17

20

=0,85

=85

 

 CHAPTER IV

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

 In this chapter, the writer would like to show some conclusions and suggestions from what has been discussed in the previous chapter.

  1. A.   Conclusion

Speaking ability is important role in learning English as a foreign language because it is very useful both formal communication and informal communication. If a teacher wants to be successful in his/her teaching, he/she has to know properly how to motivate the students to speak through his/her best strategy in teaching. It is not easy to do that because the teacher should know great amount of material to be taught before teaching in the classroom. Besides, he/she has to choose one of the most appropriate strategies in teaching.

Some strategies of teaching speaking are important to apply because the strategy in teaching speaking can help the teacher teaches the students. It can motivate the students to speak and make them more confident in expressing their idea or feeling without any disruption of their lack of knowledge language.

Ridicule strategy is a way that will help teacher to teach the students. By using this strategy in teaching speaking, it is hoped that it can create effective and interesting situation in the classroom. So, it can increase the students’ motivation and their ability in learning of speaking

B.  Suggestion

Based on the conclusion above, the writer will give suggestion for the English teacher in application of this strategy. The teacher should think about member of student. This strategy can application in small class, so the member of student about 25 until 30. In this case, the students have opportunity to participate in the classroom. After that, the teacher should choose a ridicule video or picture as a teaching media.  Based on the situation, the teacher will give motivation to make students interest, enjoyable and happiness in teaching learning process. Finally, the students can get the material and speak English well.

 

REFERENCE

Ali, Zuraidah. Speaking Skill in the ESL Classroom. 2011. 20 December 2011. http://Ezine Articles.com/?expert=Zuraidah Ali

Billig, Michael. 2011. Laughter and Ridicule towards a Social Critique of Humor. London: Loughborough University.

Brown. Components of Speaking. 1994. http://Articles/Brown-Component Teaching Speaking.html

Chlorine. Advantage of Ridicule Strategy. 2006. http://Articles/Chlorine-Advantage Speaking.html

Fleischer, Kristin. Ridicule as Strategic Communication. 2011. 12 March 2010. file:///I/COMPOS Journal >> Ridicule as Strategic Communication.hmt

Gantar, Jure. 2005. Essays in the Ethics of Laughter. Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Harmer, Jeremy. 2007. How to Teach English. Malaysia: Stenton Association.

Hobbes. Definition of Ridicule Strategy. 2007. http://Articles/Hobbes-Ridicule Strategy in Teaching Speaking.html

Hughes, A. 2003. Testing for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

James, A. Herrick. 1997. The Radical Rhetoric of the English Deists. Columbia: The University of South Carolina Press.

Kayi, Hayriye. Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language. 2006. http://iteslj.org/Articles/Kayi-Teaching Speaking.html

Klippel, Friederike. Teaching English as a Foreign or Second Language. 1989. http://www.peacecorps.gov

Louma, Sari. 2004. Assessing Speaking. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mauger, Sylvia. The Use of Ridicule in Stress Management. 2001. http://freewebs.com/laughtertheory/researcharticles.hmt

Mora, Minda. 2010. Arranged to Fulfill Assignment on Research Method. Medan: Post Graduate School State University.

Nunan, David. 2003. Practical English Language Teaching. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Orwig, J. Carol. 1999. Speaking Skill. SIL International.

Richard, C. Jack. 2008. Teaching Listening and Speaking from Theory to practice. Cambridge University Press: New York.

Rivers, M. Wilga. 2000. Interactive Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Rhonda, Rhyne. Procedure of Ridicule Strategy. 2006. http:/articles/teaching-procedure ridicule-speaking skill

Tanner and Green. Teaching Speaking Skills-Overcoming Classroom Problems. 1998.
http:/articles/teaching-speaking-skills-2-overcoming-classroom-problems

Wehmeier, Sally. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. 2007. New York: Oxford University Press.

Yarwood, L. Dean. 2004. When Congress Make a Joke. United States of America: Rowman & Littlefield Publisher, Inc.

Zakharova, Lucy. How to Teach a Language – Teaching Speaking Skills. 2004. http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/methodology/grammar.html 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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